Index of papers in Proc. ACL 2014 that mention

**vector representations**

Abstract | We propose Bilingually-constrained Recursive Auto-encoders (BRAE) to learn semantic phrase embeddings (compact vector representations for phrases), which can distinguish the phrases with different semantic meanings. |

Bilingually-constrained Recursive Auto-encoders | 3.1.1 Word Vector Representations |

Bilingually-constrained Recursive Auto-encoders | In phrase embedding using composition, the word vector representation is the basis and serves as the input to the neural network. |

Bilingually-constrained Recursive Auto-encoders | Given a phrase which is an ordered list of m words, each word has an index i into the columns of the embedding matrix L. The index i is used to retrieve the word’s vector representation using a simple multiplication with a binary vector 6 which is zero in all positions except for the ith index: |

Introduction | embedding, which converts a word into a dense, low dimensional, real-valued vector representation (Bengio et al., 2003; Bengio et al., 2006; Collobert and Weston, 2008; Mikolov et al., 2013). |

Introduction | Therefore, in order to successfully apply DNN to model the whole translation process, such as modelling the decoding process, learning compact vector representations for the basic phrasal translation units is the essential and fundamental work. |

Related Work | In contrast, our method attempts to learn the semantic vector representation for any phrase. |

vector representations is mentioned in 13 sentences in this paper.

Topics mentioned in this paper:

- embeddings (34)
- semantic similarities (18)
- phrase table (15)

Abstract | We introduce the problem of generation in distributional semantics: Given a distributional vector representing some meaning, how can we generate the phrase that best expresses that meaning? |

Evaluation setting | Construction of vector spaces We test two types of vector representations . |

Evaluation setting | (2013a) learns vector representations using a neural network architecture by trying to predict a target word given the words surrounding it. |

Evaluation setting | (2014) for an extensive comparison of the two types of vector representations . |

General framework | To construct the vector representing a two-word phrase, we must compose the vectors associated to the input words. |

General framework | where {i and 27 are the vector representations associated to words u and v. fcompR : Rd >< Rd —> Rd (for d the dimensionality of vectors) is a composition function specific to the syntactic relation R holding between the two words.1 |

Introduction | For example, given the vectors representing red and car, composition derives a vector that approximates the meaning of red car. |

Introduction | We can, for example, synthesize the vector representing the meaning of a phrase or sentence, and then generate alternative phrases or sentences from this vector to accomplish true paraphrase generation (as opposed to paraphrase detection or ranking of candidate paraphrases). |

Introduction | Given a vector representing an image, generation can be used to productively construct phrases or sentences that describe the image (as opposed to simply retrieving an existing description from a set of candidates). |

vector representations is mentioned in 9 sentences in this paper.

Topics mentioned in this paper:

Experimental Setup | To add auxiliary word vector representations , we use the publicly available word vectors (Cirik |

Introduction | Even in the case of first-order parsers, this results in a high-dimensional vector representation of each arc. |

Introduction | participating in an arc, such as continuous vector representations of words. |

Introduction | Finally, we demonstrate that the model can successfully leverage word vector representations , in contrast to the baselines. |

Problem Formulation | Specifically, U gbh (for a given sentence, suppressed) is an 7“ dimensional vector representation of the word corresponding to h as a head word. |

Related Work | Traditionally, these vector representations have been derived primarily from co-occurrences of words within sentences, ignoring syntactic roles of the co-occurring words. |

Related Work | While this method learns to map word combinations into vectors, it builds on existing word-level vector representations . |

vector representations is mentioned in 7 sentences in this paper.

Topics mentioned in this paper:

- feature vectors (16)
- dependency parsing (13)
- POS tags (10)

Our Approach | The computation process is conducted in a bottom-up manner, and the vector representations are computed recursively. |

RNN: Recursive Neural Network | It performs compositions based on the binary trees, and obtain the vector representations in a bottom-up way. |

RNN: Recursive Neural Network | The vector representation v is obtained via: |

RNN: Recursive Neural Network | The vector representation of root node is then fed into a softmax classifier to predict the label. |

vector representations is mentioned in 5 sentences in this paper.

Topics mentioned in this paper:

- Recursive (14)
- Recursive Neural (11)
- dependency tree (8)

Model overview | Our framework accommodates any paraphrasing method, and in this paper we propose an association model that learns to associate natural language phrases that co-occur frequently in a monolingual parallel corpus, combined with a vector space model, which learns to score the similarity between vector representations of natural language utterances (Section 5). |

Paraphrasing | We now introduce a vector space (VS) model, which assigns a vector representation for each utterance, and learns a scoring function that ranks paraphrase candidates. |

Paraphrasing | We start by constructing vector representations of words. |

Paraphrasing | We can now estimate a paraphrase score for two utterances cc and 0 via a weighted combination of the components of the vector representations: |

vector representations is mentioned in 4 sentences in this paper.

Topics mentioned in this paper:

- logical forms (48)
- semantic parsing (22)
- natural language (9)

Introduction | In this paper, we rely on the same image analysis techniques but instead focus on the reference problem: We do not aim at enriching word representations with visual information, although this might be a side effect of our approach, but we address the issue of automatically mapping objects, as depicted in images, to the context vectors representing the corresponding words. |

Introduction | We show that the induced cross-modal semantic space is powerful enough that sensible guesses about the correct word denoting an object can be made, even when the linguistic context vector representing the word has been created from as little as 1 sentence containing it. |

Introduction | First, we conduct experiments with simple image-and text-based vector representations and compare alternative methods to perform cross-modal mapping. |

Related Work | (2013) use linear regression to transform vector-based image representations onto vectors representing the same concepts in linguistic semantic space. |

vector representations is mentioned in 4 sentences in this paper.

Topics mentioned in this paper:

- semantic space (18)
- neural network (7)
- SVD (7)

Compositional distributional semantics | If distributional vectors encode certain aspects of word meaning, it is natural to expect that similar aspects of sentence meaning can also receive vector representations , obtained compositionally from word vectors. |

Compositional distributional semantics | Deverbal nouns like demolition, often used without mention of who demolished what, would have to get vector representations while the corresponding verbs (demolish) would become tensors, which makes immediately related verbs and nouns incomparable. |

The practical lexical function model | The matrices formalize argument slot saturation, operating on an argument vector representation through matrix by vector multiplication, as described in the next section. |

The practical lexical function model | This flexibility makes our model suitable to compute vector representations of sentences without stumbling at unseen syntactic usages of words. |

vector representations is mentioned in 4 sentences in this paper.

Topics mentioned in this paper:

- word order (9)
- sentence pairs (6)
- syntactic contexts (5)

Autoencoders for Grounded Semantics | The target vector is the sum of X0) and the centroid X0) of the remaining attribute vectors representing object 0. |

Experimental Setup | As shown in Figure 1, our model takes as input two (real-valued) vectors representing the visual and textual modalities. |

Experimental Setup | respond to words and edges to cosine similarity scores between vectors representing their meaning. |

Results | Table 6 shows examples of clusters produced by Chinese Whispers when using vector representations provided by the SAE model. |

vector representations is mentioned in 4 sentences in this paper.

Topics mentioned in this paper:

- meaning representations (11)
- SVD (8)
- semantic similarity (7)

Introduction | In order to isolate the contribution from word embeddings, it is useful to demonstrate improvement over a parser that already achieves state-of-the-art performance without vector representations . |

Parser extensions | gb(w) is the vector representation of the word 212, am, are per-basis weights, and 6 is an inverse radius parameter which determines the strength of the smoothing. |

Parser extensions | vector representation . |

vector representations is mentioned in 3 sentences in this paper.

Topics mentioned in this paper:

- embeddings (38)
- word embeddings (25)
- constituency parsing (8)

Experimental Approach | Generating Visual Representations Visual vector representations for each image were obtained using the well-known bag of visual words (BoVW) approach (Sivic and Zisserman, 2003). |

Experimental Approach | BoVW obtains a vector representation for an |

Experimental Approach | Generating Linguistic Representations We extract continuous vector representations (also of 50 dimensions) for concepts using the continuous log-linear skipgram model of Mikolov et al. |

vector representations is mentioned in 3 sentences in this paper.

Topics mentioned in this paper:

- im (4)
- semantic representations (4)
- vector representations (3)

Experiments | LinLearn denotes model combination by overloading the vector representation of queries q and documents (1 in the VW linear learner by incorporating arbitrary ranking models as dense features. |

Model Combination | This means that the vector representation of queries q and documents (1 in the VW linear learner is overloaded once more: In addition to dense domain-knowledge features, we incorporate arbitrary ranking models as dense features whose value is the score of the ranking model. |

Translation and Ranking for CLIR | Optimization for these additional models including domain knowledge features was done by overloading the vector representation of queries q and documents (1 in the VW linear learner: Instead of sparse word-based features, q and d are represented by real-valued vectors of dense domain-knowledge features. |

vector representations is mentioned in 3 sentences in this paper.

Topics mentioned in this paper:

- cross-lingual (7)
- SMT system (4)
- best result (3)

Introduction | Finally, we perform SVD on the motif similarity matrix (with size of the order of the total vocabulary in the corpus), and retain the first k principal eigenvectors to obtain low-dimensional vector representations that are more convenient to work with. |

Introduction | For composing the motifs representations to get judgments on semantic similarity of sentences, we use our recent Vector Tree Kernel approach The VTK approach defines a convo-lutional kernel over graphs defined by the dependency parses of sentences, using a vector representation at each graph node that representing a single lexical token. |

Introduction | For this task, we again use the VTK formalism for combining vector representations of the individual motifs. |

vector representations is mentioned in 3 sentences in this paper.

Topics mentioned in this paper:

- segmentation model (17)
- embeddings (8)
- distributional semantics (7)